Even Though

The Mishna in Avos (Chapter 3, Mishna 11) teaches us that certain transgressions are so heinous (see below for a more detailed listing) that one who violates them (and fails to repent) does not have a portion in the world to come (even after suffering and death).  The Mishna inserts a qualifier into this statement teaching us that “even though he possesses Torah study and good deeds (Mitzvos and Chesed) he has no portion in the world to come.”

I found myself asking what is the implication of the ‘even though?’  What would I have thought had the Mishna not inserted this qualifier?  The first thought was that the Mishna wants us to know that there are no trade-offs with Heaven.  However, regarding this idea the Torah writes explicitly (Devarim 10:17) that Hashem does not take bribes.  And the commentaries point out that this means any bribe which might have currency in Heaven, such as charity or good deeds.  And so we are back to asking what was the ‘even though of our Mishna?

I would like to suggest that this ‘even though’ (and possibly other usages of ‘even though’ in the Mishna) have the implication of dealing with an unanswerable question.  In this case, we have a conflict of fundamental beliefs.  On the one hand we are taught to have perfect faith that Hashem rewards those who uphold His will (as well as the reverse).  We are further taught that the place for our reward is the world to come (for all except those who would truly rather have the material world than the infinite spiritual world).  Thus, if the only place for reward is the world to come, and this person has studied Torah and performed acts of charity and Chesed, then how could it be that he will not have a portion in the world to come?!  What will come of the awaited reward that we assert with such certainty is the lot of one who upholds His will?!

The answer is contained in the words ‘even though.’  The Mishna is asserting that we must reckon with a conundrum, a mystery that only the Creator can answer.  One who violates one of the prohibitions listed will not have a portion in the world to come, and as for the seeming contradiction between this assertion and the assertion that Hashem repays perfectly for every right and wrong, we are left with an ‘even though.’  The matter of reward, so to speak, is left to Heaven.  We are left with the unequivocal assertion that the person has no share in the world to come.  We don’t have to answer for the eternal mathematics.  Some things can be left with an ‘even though.’

As an afterthought, perhaps the underlying reason for the loss of eternity is that one who is not sensitized to the items in the list is so removed from the purpose of creation (sanctity of that which is consecrated to Hashem – both consecrated objects and consecrated time, the unique bond of the covenant (bris) between the Jews and Hashem, the deference that is due to a human being, and to the truths of the Torah) that his agenda makes him unable to enjoy eternal proximity with Hashem.  He and Hashem have taken different paths and at a certain point the conclusion must be made that the two paths will never join.  As to what happens with his Torah and Mitzvos, we leave that to heaven.


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Unpopular Psychology – Mussar and Logotherapy

I must confess to living with the delusion that if Mussar were explained in its full beauty then people would flock to it, drawn by their heartstrings.  Now that I have become more deeply involved in a sister pursuit known as Logotherapy I have come to a clearer understanding.  Responsibility is not popular and is not likely to become so.  Most of us would like to be utterly free of responsibility and certainly not the type of responsibility whereby we are answerable to another for the execution of that duty.  At best we are happy to be volunteers, taking on tasks but disallowing any claims on our being.  Mussar, and as I have come to understand Logotherapy, is all about responsibility and obligations.  It is about the demands which our humanity and our being in the Divine Image places upon each of us.  It is about the fact that our capacities and our talents each stand as our servants and our masters.  They are our servants for they are tools that we can use however we wish to accomplish every goal that those capacities are designed to achieve, and they are our masters, for they relentlessly demand to be utilized in the service of the greater good of my becoming more human and more like my Creator.  I enjoy my talents when they serve me and bring me glory; I loathe them when they lay claim to my attention.  Now go back to the previous sentence and replace the word ‘talents’ with the words ‘children’ or ‘neighbor’ or ‘Torah study’ or ‘generosity’ and see how pervasive this feeling is.

Mussar is about being called by our great humanity as well as the guidelines for how to respond to that call.  Logotherapy is about the fact that only this call humanizes us and to ignore the call is to feel empty and frustrated, for only when a tool is used properly can it feel right.  Logotherapy opens our understanding that our emotional, spiritual and, ultimately, physical health hang in the balance of being responsible while Mussar shows us how such basic responsibility can lead to being crowned with Commandments and Torah.

We are meant to thank our Creator every day for being responsible, and ultimately to thank Him for having sanctified us with His Commandments.  That somehow does not sound like the plot of a bestseller.

And hence, we proudly present, unpopular psychology.  Gone are the enticing bits of blaming our upbringing and our environment; the juicy morsels of characterizing ourselves as this type or that, the popular exemptions of co-dependence and addiction, the endlessly popular emphasis on the urgency of bodily desires which make for a brotherhood of mediocrity, failure and guilt.  Here we find the man-master, capable, powerful – and answerable.

Let others answer the call.  I’ll read their stories and applaud them from my comfortable perch as a volunteer actor on the stage of the human drama.  Their greatness can also be popular, filling the void in my life with pseudo-growth the same way that putting down others serves to create the illusion of my growth.  Assuming responsibility as one who is commissioned, obligated and answerable is hardly the fodder for a page-turner.  For the author is none other than oneself and the ink and the pages are the talents and capacities with which we are each endowed.

May we each merit to be considered by our Creator as master practitioners of unpopular psychology.

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Unexpected Redemption

Jews have a complex relationship with redemption.  On the one hand (most of what I write has an ‘on the one hand’ in it) we are called upon to look forward, indeed to yearn, for redemption.  When discussing the great and awesome judgement to which a person will be subjected after his days on Earth are over, a key question that will be asked of each of us is whether we yearned for the promised redemption (Shabbos 31a).  If we are meant to continuously yearn for the Messianic redemption, then why are we taught (Sanhedrin 97a) that there are three things that spring upon a person while he is unaware, the arrival of the Messiah, a lost item that he stumbles upon and (the bite of) a scorpion?  It seems that for all of our yearning for Messianic redemption, it only comes when a person isn’t looking!

The answer seems to lie in the depth of our belief system.  We don’t believe that the status quo can radically change.  From the micro level (can I really alter some aspect of my character or repair some act for which I must repent) to the macro level (can the messed up situation/world ever be set straight) we tend to disbelieve.  On the downside, we find the prophet teaching us (Lamentations 4:12) that even the kings of nations, did not believe that Jerusalem would be breached and that the Temple would be destroyed.  In fact, this left ample room for false prophets to declare that there was nothing to be concerned about, that the Temple would be safe and that the People need not take major corrective steps.  Their message met the basic feature of human belief – in the status quo.  Things don’t change; indeed they cannot change.  And yet the Temple was destroyed.  From one day to the next the situation of the Temple and of the Jewish People was altered dramatically.  Similarly, we have difficulty believing that our situation will again change and that Messianic redemption will indeed arrive.  Thus two things can co-exist.  We can yearn for the Messianic redemption and it can only come when we are not looking.  They come together as beliefs.  We must believe in the prophecies of redemption while bowing to the human nature of belief in the status quo.  There is no other way to live for if I were to imagine that the situation will immediately change then it would not matter much how recklessly I enlarge my overdraft.  And if I do not believe that the situation can change then I will lose all hope and become a desperate ‘fixer’ of things over which I have no control.  I need to find the balance between the two belief systems; the necessary belief in redemption and the belief in the status quo.  One keeps me going and one keeps me from going too far.

There is a big catch in this story, though.  There is a piercing comment of the Maharsha on the above-mentioned Gemara about the three things that spring on a person when he is unaware.  He decodes the Gemara as follows: The Messaih’s arrival will be for some as joyous as finding a lost treasure, and for others it will be as the bite of a scorpion.  Both are sudden, but one is suddenly brilliant and wonderful and one is suddenly horrible.  How could the same event be both wonderful for some and horrible for others.  Likely that has a great deal to do with the nature of the yearning.  I recall as a youngster hearing about a simple Jew in a small town who heard a great rabbi speak about the coming of the Messiah.  Glowing and excited, the fellow ran home to tell his wife the good news.  The Messiah is coming and we’ll all be going back to the Holy Land, to the rebuilt Temple, and so on.  His wife’s response took him aback.  She challenged him, ‘but what about our cow?’  So the simple Jew ran back to the rabbi who was still at the Synagogue and put her question before him, ‘perhaps we don’t want to go to the Holy Land; we have a cow here.’  To which the rabbi responded with exclaim, ‘but what about the Cossacks!’  Ah, now he clearly understood.  He went back to his wife and proclaimed, ‘we shouldn’t want to stay here, what about the Cossacks!’  She thought for a moment and sent her husband back to the rabbi.  She had a suggestion.  ‘Leave us here with our cow, and take the Cossacks to the Holy Land!’

There are many people whose yearning for deliverance, if it exists at all, is simply for relief from the difficulties of their daily lives.  And while I have no issue with such prayers and while I would wish the same for myself and for those I care about, there is more to redemption than relief from difficulties.  There is universal recognition of what a human being was designed to be – a mentsch who is then crowned with Commandments (Mitzvos) and above that crowned with Torah.  The universal recognition of what it means to be truly human in the Creator’s image is the piercing message of redemption.  To cut through the nonsense and seemingly endless stream of smallness when people hold up false values and put other humans down.  To wipe away the disgrace of misguided people who have replaced the glorious Torah definitions of exalted humanity with their own pathetic definitions of human achievement.  For those who are yearning for distorted humanity to prevail then redemption will be a scorpion’s bite.  For those who are holding fast to the finest Torah definitions of Man, the redemption is a found treasure.  It will always be unexpected because of the nature of our status-quo belief, but it can be profoundly glorious if we are yearning in the right direction.

Oh, by the way, the way to demonstrate the yearning for exalted humanity is to strive towards it with actions that reflect that yearning.  We’re fragile and error prone, but if we keep climbing the steps, there will be an elevator that will take us to the top.

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The Tightrope of Strengths

As the cryptic title implies, there is a delicate tightrope which we each must walk when balancing our personal strengths and assets with our challenges.  On the one side of the rope is the terrible abyss of despair.  Despair is the assumption that I do not have the skills nor the strength to confront the challenges of my life.  They are greater than I am.  That side of the abyss is associated with depression or, more commonly, endless complaining and a vague sense of irritation at the unfairness of the world whose challenges rest on my inadequate shoulders.  Someone needs to lift the load for me.  Even prayers, when they are offered (and often folks who have fallen on this side of the tightrope do not engage in genuine prayer), become a pathetic pleading co-mingled with angry accusations at the One Who has singled me out for challenges that are beyond my ability.

On the other side of the tightrope are those who are so convinced of their personal strength and skills that they need not apply themselves to the challenges of life.  The challenges will simply fall away as I carry on with my endless potency.  I need not give them any thought and I certainly do not need to invent any challenges in my state of well-being!.  And while I may not carry this all the way to imagine that I am invincible, I need not address the process of overcoming challenges with any more attention than most healthy people give to their digestion.  It just happens as I breeze along ‘doing my thing.’

The one side of the tightrope leads to paralyzing self-consciousness and the other, a lack of purpose and mission owing to a lack of regard and respect for the formidable tasks that are before each of us.  In their extreme forms they lead to depression or mania. As Victor Frankl has pointed out, depression is the sense that life’s tasks are bigger than I am, while mania is the sense that I am far bigger than life’s tasks.  But even without looking at the extremes, failure to properly regard one’s strengths and one’s challenges will lead to a tumble from the tightrope. 

The trick, if it can be referred to as such, is an internal concept of fit.  Fit implies that the resources and the challenges are in sync.  An inventory of resources will yield a discovery of personal challenges and an inventory of challenges will yield a discovery of personal strengths.  Let us imagine, for a moment, that I discover that I have a certain ability or strength.  Perhaps it is wealth or prowess or intellect, physical agility or creative juices, deep compassion or a sense of orderliness.  The list, with the unique combinations of skills both gifted and acquired, is as varied as there are people in the world.  (But let’s leave the whole world for a moment and focus on one person, oneself.  It is far too easy to pass this work on to someone else by noticing the fit between their strengths and their challenges.  ‘C’mon – you can do it!’ alternates with ‘you poor thing’ and no growth happens.)  Knowing that I have been given (or have acquired) a strength or gift means that I am summoned to put that asset to work.  An asset demands a challenge.  Just as one must keep a balance between what he eats and the activity of his lifestyle, so must we keep a balance between our assets and our challenges.  To have an asset is to be called by a challenge.  Asset without challenge is spiritual fat or lethergy.

The converse is also the case.  Challenges summon us to review our assets.  That does not imply that challenges can be overcome.  As Logotherapists we have come to learn that the asset which some challenges summon is the ability to accept and bow our head before the Righteous Judge.  However it is fair to say that every challenge is a call to revisit a resource.  When a person feels challenged, that is the time to recall his resources.  When he feels strong, it is the time to stretch the muscles and build resources.  Every instance of life, each meeting, each page of study, calls on us to sense our resources and to stretch them.  Without recalling our resources we are hopeless and without regarding the challenge we fail to stretch.

It has been said, correctly, that the place for Mussar and introspection must begin from an inventory of personal and trait assets.  That triggers a meaningful course of personal growth.  Others may start from the challenge at hand and the road leads back to resources.  After all, imagine someone who is facing a business difficulty who does not first think of the resources available to address the difficulty?!  It is natural to think this way when facing a challenge. 

Unless, of course, one has forgotten about the tightrope.

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In Celebration of Prophecy – Shavuos Metaphors

     As is evident from the verses that describe the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, the take away lesson of the event is that Hashem speaks with people.  He does not only manifest His absolute majesty over the universe, as the People saw in Egypt and at the Sea, He has a will for mankind and He makes that will known to man directly – Hashem speaks to man.

     The content of the prophecy is, in this sense, secondary for Shavuos.  First and foremost is the celebration of the very fact that Hashem speaks to man.  In Shmos (20:19) we find Moshe summarizing the event of Revelation announcing to the People that “you have seen that from Heavens I [Hashem] have spoken with you.”  And again in Devarim (5:21) the People summarize the event by saying that “Hashem has shown us His glory and greatness, and His voice we heard; today we have seen that Hashem speaks with Man who can go on living.”  And further (ibid. 23) “For who among all the living who has heard the voice of the living Hashem as we have and are still alive.”  Hashem, as it were, is pleased with the take away lesson that the People have derived.  They got the message, and the message is prophecy.  Shavuos, the marking of the revelation on Mount Sinai then, is a celebration of prophecy.  We may not be on the level to receive prophecy but that is very different from saying that man cannot hear Hashem’s voice, orthat Hashem has no way to reveal His will to man.  He does, and He has, and the Torah that we have in our possession is the fruit of that revelation.  There are ‘moderns’ for whom the concept of prophecy does not quite work and there are quacks who insist that they are still receiving prophecy, but neither of those fringes can alter the fundamental factthat the revelation on Mount Sinai was meant to drive home – Hashem reveals His will to man.

     I would like to suggest two metaphors that might help us take the message of prophecy home beyond the belief in the simple fact that prophecy exists.  So, in the spirit of Shavuos, I would like to speak of the Spy and the Psychotic.

The Spy

     A spy has taken up residence in a foreign country.  He has established his identity in that place and he is living a normal life.  While he goes on with his life, anticipates that some day the boss who commissioned him to his job may send him a message indicating that he is needed in one way or another.  And one day, he receives a visitor at his store who, by use of the pre-arranged password, indicates that he has a message from the boss.  At once, the spy closes his store, lowers the shutters and begins to listen, very carefully, to the message from the boss.  Not a word of the instructions will fall to the floor forgotten nor will he hesitate to ask if some aspect of the instruction is unclear to him.  He is keenly aware of the significance of the instructions and he hears the words as though the boss were speaking with him directly.  This is meant to be our attitude towards hearing words of Torah.  We were witness to the event of Mount Sinai and we are aware that Hashem reveals His will to man.  Now a teacher, who can trace his teaching back to that event at Mount Sinai, is revealing some aspect of the content of the message from the boss.  Our attention is meant to emulate that of the spy in our story.  Now is not the time or place to concern ourselves with customers, calls, or bills.  For now is the time that the boss is disclosing a part of His message.  Shavuos is a time for reaffirming our relationship with the study of Torah in line with the metaphor of the Spy.

The Psychotic

     One symptom of schizophrenia is auditory hallucinations, or command voices.  The person hears an internal voice and often those voices are very sinister and self destructive.  A person who hears command voices cannot ignore them, and if those voices command the person to some act that is a danger to themselves or to others then the person will need protective supervision.  The power of the command voice makes us certain that the person will act in accordance with the command voice and hence its power and potential danger.  As regards the message of Shavuos, we are meant to internalize the message of that which we learned through prophecy to the degree that we feel absolutely compelled to carry out the content of the message, no matter what the obstacles that may stand in our way.  Others who look upon a person who deeply lives the message of the Torah as an internal command voice will be impressed with the power and certainty with which the person dedicates himself to the instructions of the Torah.  They are command voices for him and he will go to the ends of the earth to carry them out.  Auditory hallucinations are scary because the person did not choose them and they exert great power.  The Torah has power because the person has chosen to internalize the message of prophecy and he can drink in some of the spirit of Shavuos to move the message from voluntary (I’ll do it when the spirit moves me and leave it when it does not) to compelling – to a command voice.

     It might go without saying that there can be nothing more dangerous than a person who claims to have heard a message from Hashem but he has not, or is not transmitting the message with the precision that is needed for such a calling, but the Torah does not leave it go without saying it.  Such a person incurs the most dire consequences.  We rely (or, perhaps, have relied) on prophecy and let no one dare invoke the name of Hashem in promotion of some spiritual agenda of this nature or another.  As we commonly say, if Hashem wanted me to listen to you He would have told me, not you.  We are witness to prophecyand we can hold up with pride many examples of people who have related to the Torah with the seriousness of the Spy and the commitment of the Psychotic.  Shavuos is a time for each of us to take a small but meaningful step in the direction of prophecy and in the take-home lessons of prophecy.

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Mussar and the Blackberry upgrade

The following was written before Blackberry forgot how to make Blackberrys. The point is valid nonetheless (ed note)

I appreciate and use technology, probably a bit more than most, surely far less than many.  Every so often I realize that technology has a lesson to teach us and I try to learn it.  More often I notice the lesson, pass it on to someone else (who is usually quite pleased to hear it) and I thus fail to learn it myself.  So, at the risk of not learning this message, I’d like to share a thought about the recent Blackberry upgrade to OS6.

Some years ago, a dear friend introduced me to the Blackberry and while I didn’t become the ultimate power user, the convenience was quite clear for me.  A couple of years ago this same friend arranged for my Blackberry 8310 to be upgraded to the Blackberry 9700.  That was cute, but hardly a change that made a huge difference.  I won’t go into the benefits of the upgrade to the 9700, since that is not at all the point of this post, and since you can read about that in several million other places.  As a point of reference, though, for the uninitiated, the old Blackberry used Operating System (OS)4 and, later, OS4.5 and the new toy used OS5. 

Well, along came the iphone, and its graphical interface became quite the rage.  It seemed that the iphone was even making inroads into Blackberry territory to the extent that Blackberry lovers were having to defend their beleaguered friend and RIM (the Canadian folks who make the Blackberry) seemed rather slow in providing a suitable response.  All the while, conversations revolved around the iphone.  I noticed, without taking much notice, that the iphone users were being continuously lured into purchasing a new unit.  The iphone3, the iphone4, rumors about the features in the upcoming iphone5 and prophecies about what the iphone 6 to 60 will be like.  New ideas translate into new models and new models mean obsolescence.

Against that backdrop, RIM recently upgraded my Blackberry 9700 to OS6.  I chose my words carefully there (that happens at times).  They provided the upgrade for free.  I only had to plug my Blackberry into my computer and let RIM do the rest.  There was no discussion of buying the upgrade and I had no idea that this upgrade would completely revolutionize my old Blackberry 9700.  While you can find reviews about the upgrade elsewhere, permit me to say that they put my Blackberry on steroids, added features that I could only dream about (just imagine looking up a name in your address book and seeing below all of the conversations that you have had with that person as one example) in an interface that resolves any traces of iphone envy that a Blackberry user might suffer from.  But the most amazing part of the story is that I did not have to change my unit!  I did not have to buy another Blackberry!  They somehow figured out how to make use of the existing technology from a couple of years ago and make it run like tomorrow.  Now, while I’d love to send kudos to the development team at RIM for putting tomorrow’s ideas into yesterday’s technology, I don’t have access to them.  But what I do have is a Mussar thought (did you think that I’d never get there?).  There is a powerful message that is sent whenever an upgrade requires new hardware.  It sends the message that we cannot truly change and upgrade what we are about.  Perhaps our children will be new and improved, and theirs after them, but we are old hardware and the new software of growth and change does not run on us.

And then RIM introduced this revolutionary change to existing hardware and that sends a very different metaphor.  With thought and planning our old hardware can be upgraded.  We are capable of deep change.  It cannot be overnight, and it is a fantasy to think that we can just ‘plug in’ to change and it will happen, but deep change and growth is possible and it can be done by each of us, with the hardware that we were each born with.  We need not leave the task of growth to the upgrade of future generations, we can make the changes ourselves, using the strengths and challenges which are ours we can move forward towards the Torah’s ideal.

It’s very easy for our unconscious system to claim exemptions to the arduous task of personal change.  Perhaps RIM has helped us a bit with loosening the grip of one of those exemptions, that we are hopeless in the change process since that requires a hardware upgrade.  It requires heavenly assistance, that is true, but so does everything that we set out to do.  More than anything else it requires a deep belief that we can, are called, and must succeed.

Thank you, RIM.

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